The 16th amendment was never actually ratified as the research of Bill Benson shows, who went from State to State gathering evidence and ended up with irrefutable proof. As the DVD “16th Amendment Fraudulently Ratified” tells, Benson collected undeniable evidence in the form of thousands of certified legal documents from both state and federal archives. These documents revealed exactly how the 16th Amendment was acted on by each state legislature, and how it was handled by the office of the Secretary of State for the United States. A careful reading of these documents showed that the then Secretary of State, Philander Knox, decided to fraudulently declare the 16th Amendment officially ratified, despite the fact it did not have the requisite number (36 which was three-quarters of the existing 48 States at that time) of state legislature approvals. When his project was finished at the end of 1984, Bill had visited the capital of every state from 1913 and knew that not a single one had actually and legally ratified the proposal to amend the U.S. Constitution!
The fraudulent declaration of ratification occurred during the final days of the William Howard Taft administration in 1913. Benson’s research is crucial, because it destroys the foundations of the Government’s supposed authority.
Ever since 1913, the US Government has used the 16th Amendment as its sole authority to tax an individual’s wages and salaries, via the Federal Income Tax collected by the IRS. (The IRS, by the way, is another giant fraud perpetrated on the American people. It is not an official agency or even part of the US Government at all! It is a private Puerto Rican trust.) So by falsely claiming the legitimacy of the 16th Amendment, the US Government began to unlawfully extract taxes from individuals, directly, without apportioning it among the States or basing it on Census results. Up until 1913, the Government followed the Constitution, which specifically states in Article 1, Section 2 that “direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union.”
Benson’s research blows the issue of income tax wide open, because:
1. The federal income tax is a direct tax; and
2. Direct taxes have to be apportioned among the States, according to the US Constitution, Article 1, Section 2.
Next time tax season comes around, think carefully about whether you want to participate in this scam any longer. You are completely within your rights to refuse filing or paying income tax. Indeed, lawfully refusing to do so may be one of the most effective ways to bring this tyrannical, cancerous Government to its knees, and restore it to its rightful function: as the servant not the master of the We the People.
McKinley won the 1896 presidential race with a great deal of support from Big Business, e.g., John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil contributed $250,000 to the "front porch" campaign that defeated Bryan and his populist platform of returning to the constitutionally mandated monetary system and reform of McKinley's high tariffs that had allowed domestic manufacturers to raise their prices to a level that matched the artificially-induced higher prices of foreign goods, thus causing a severe depression. Knox helped in this financial and political effort that was directed by the wealthy Ohio industrialist Mark Hanna, who was appointed to a vacant U.S. Senate seat the following year by Ohio's governor. McKinley had already been saved from personal financial ruin by help from his old friend, Philander Knox, who had become wealthy as counsel to the very wealthy.
Knox came to be regarded as one of the ablest lawyers in the country, his repute due in no small measure to his being counsel for Carnegie and Vanderbilt and their corporate enterprises. He was instrumental in Carnegie's big victory in a crucial patent case in which the most important invention for the manufacture of crude steel was at stake. In 1892, he defended Henry Frick, Carnegie's steel plant manager, who was being sued by the steel workers who had been beaten up by Pinkertons brought in by Frick during the infamous Homestead strike, a strike that was provoked by two of Carnegie's presidents, one of whom was also an attorney for J.P. Morgan. Knox also deflected prosecution and civil suit against Carnegie in 1894 after it was shown to Congress that Carnegie had defrauded the Navy with inferior armor plate for U.S. warships. Morgan himself had defrauded the U.S. Army in arms sales during the Civil War. And Knox averted prosecution of Carnegie after the president of the Morgan-controlled Pennsylvania Railroad testified that Carnegie had regularly received illegal kickbacks from the railroad. Knox's other big client at the time, the Vanderbilt family, was connected to Carnegie primarily through the railroad industry.
President McKinley offered Knox the post of U.S. Attorney General in 1899, but Knox had to decline, because he was then and for two more years engaged in arranging the merger of the railroad, oil, coal, iron and steel interests of Carnegie, J.P. Morgan, Rockefeller, and other robber barons into the largest conglomerate in history - U.S. Steel. This immense corporation encompassed the interests of nearly all the robber barons in what Knox's new client, J.P. Morgan, referred to as a "community of interest." One important component of the conglomerate was Consolidated Iron Mines in the Mesabi Range of Minnesota, which Rockefeller had fraudulently swindled from the Merritt family, who later successfully sued John D. for fraud, but had to settle for a fraction of the award because they ran out of money during Rockefeller's appeals.
After the U.S. Steel merger, Knox accepted McKinley's offer to make him Attorney General, an appointment that was personally promoted by Carnegie in a letter to McKinley and by Morgan in a personal visit to the White House. The appointment was strenuously and loudly opposed by anti-trust forces, since it would then be up to Knox to prosecute anti-trust law violations against the very robber barons who had been his clients for many years and who had made him a wealthy man. Sure enough, the public outcry to investigate the big new U.S. Steel monster that Knox had created met with Knox's response that he knew nothing and could do nothing, and nothing is what he did.
After McKinley's assassination in 1901, Knox continued as Attorney General under Theodore Roosevelt. Even though Roosevelt labeled himself as a "trust-buster," Knox saw to it that very little harm came to his benefactors. U.S. Steel was unscathed, and most of the actions that were taken against the railroad companies were largely done with the urging of the railroad giants themselves, who were the strongest advocates of federal regulation of the industry, because that regulation, with their own agents working in the federal commissions, enabled them to gain greater control over the industry, be protected from competition, and maintain prices. The best-known anti-trust case was against Northern Securities, a railroad holding company formed by Morgan as a show of strength for the benefit of Hill, Harriman, Rockefeller, and their bankers, Kuhn, Loeb & Company. The dissolution of Northern by the Supreme Court in 1904 was deemed "inconsequential" by the financial press, since the two major railroads it encompassed had not been competing anyway, and the defendants ended up suffering no loss. Knox, of course, did not pursue any of the criminal sanctions that he should have undertaken against his former allies and clients, but the case gave the appearance that Roosevelt was doing something and was a public relations success for the president. But Roosevelt, while touting himself as an anti-trust champion, disparaged and labeled as "muckrakers" those journalists who actually investigated and exposed the corrupt activities of the robber barons.
Harriman's great fortune had been acquired through a series of fraudulent maneuvers, key of which was legislation signed by Roosevelt, at that time governor of New York, allowing New York banks to invest in railroad bonds being sold by Harriman and his partners at inflated prices. Hill profited enormously from fraud, deceit, and outright theft involving vast amounts of public lands that were given to the railroads and then resold, or raped and then traded to the government for new lands. The Vanderbilt fortune had also gained greatly from fraudulent maneuvers involving railroad securities and Cornelius's evasion of taxes. When all this was investigated after Cornelius's death, Morgan came to the Vanderbilt's rescue (managing to take control of their New York Central Railroad in the process).
Knox persuaded Roosevelt that the anti-trust laws should be accompanied by increased regulation of business. He advocated and drafted federal statutes that gave his rich and powerful friends even more power and control over interstate commerce - setting rates and eliminating competition in restraint of trade - all under federal authority and with agents of the conglomerates appointed to and sitting on the governmental boards and commissions. This plan derived from and implemented a strategy set by Morgan and the other robber barons at a meeting in 1889. Knox continued in this vein as a U.S. Senator from Pennsylvania, being appointed to a vacant seat by Pennsylvania's governor in 1904 at the behest of several powerful capitalists, including Carnegie's man, former client Frick (which showed they approved of Knox's handling of anti-trust matters as Attorney General).
Knox, by now a multi-millionaire, was in the Senate when the Morgan-controlled financial Panic of 1907 hit, which led to a congressional inquiry into the monetary and banking systems. Senator Nelson Aldrich (father of the wife of John D. Rockefeller, Jr. and namesake and god-father of Nelson A. Rockefeller) led the inquiry producing the 1912 report that recommended a national bank (controlled and owned by the robber barons) and ultimately resulted in the Federal Reserve Act of 1913, co-authored by Aldrich and Robert Owens. Owens later testified to Congress that the banking industry conspired to create financial panics like the one in 1907 in order to rouse the people to demand reform - reform that would be directed by, and to the benefit of, the very financial experts who had caused the panic.
Knox resigned from the Senate and became Secretary of State under President Taft from Ohio in 1909. He was the most powerful figure in the Taft administration, and drew up the lists from which Taft appointed his other cabinet members, many of whom were intimately concerned with the giant corporations. He was Taft's primary confidante.
Knox became active in organizing the international court at The Hague, and fought hard for the Rockefeller/Morgan-inspired concept of a League of Nations, although U.S. opposition to the Treaty of Versailles forced him to temper his public views on the League. He proclaimed the era of "Dollar Diplomacy," his legacy to U.S. foreign policy, under which the Secretary of State's office was used to promote and protect American commercial and industrial interests in foreign countries, especially in Latin America, but also in East Asia and even Europe. This period of U.S. imperialism featured the annexation of Hawaii in the 1890s at the request of American businesses there despite the unanimous opposition by Hawaiians; the taking of Cuba and the Philippines from the Spanish as well as from the native rebels whom the U.S had ostensibly come to assist in gaining their liberty (this included the massive slaughter of a hundred thousand Filipinos by the U.S Army in a war in which the news media was censored. (even William Randolph Hearst, who had helped instigate the war with Spain, was aghast and disgusted.)
Then came the Honduras financial crisis of 1909, in which Knox brokered a deal for J.P. Morgan & Company to make huge loans to that country, backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S., and for American bankers to take control of the Honduras taxing authority (to ensure adequate cash flow to make the loan payments). Knox's diplomatic maneuvers resulted in the U.S. Navy being sent to support and give victory to rebel forces in Nicaragua, who then made arrangements, again devised by Knox, to give control of Nicaraguan taxing authority and tax collection to Americans. American bankers then immediately made big loans to Nicaragua, once again guaranteed by the U.S. government, providing a risk-free investment environment for Knox's banker friends.
Knox tried to conduct the same kind of activity in the rest of Central America and much of South America as well, and used America's claim against the Chinese from the Boxer Rebellion to coerce China to deal with a syndicate of Harriman and his bankers Kuhn & Loeb, Morgan and his First National Bank, and the Rockefeller-controlled National City Bank, instead of with the British, French, and Germans, in a scheme to establish a round-the-world transportation system using American steamship and railroad lines. There was even action by Morgan's man in that syndicate, Henry Davidson, to supply arms to the Bolsheviks in hopes of gaining oil and commerce concessions in Russia if they were victorious.
At the international level, Knox has been criticized for oafish and heavy-handed diplomacy that caused ill will and damaged the reputation of the United States worldwide. His conduct was more that of a huckster than a diplomat. Domestically, Knox's influence extended to the Supreme Court, where he succeeded in having Taft appoint three justices who were extremely sympathetic to the big business trusts: Devanter, Lamar, and Pitney. The first two of these had formerly had clients among the big corporate trusts, including the railroads.
The 16th Amendment itself was given its decisive shove through Congress in 1909 by Sen. Nelson Aldrich of Rhode Island (co-author of the Federal Reserve Act of 1913), who spoke for the "community of interest' of both Morgan and Rockefeller. This represented and led to an astonishing reversal of attitudes among the old-line big-business conservatives in the Senate, who had long staunchly opposed an income tax. Obviously, something was afoot to change their minds. It was that the robber barons had already figured out how to avoid the proposed income tax, especially through the establishment and use of foundations, the number of which grew from 18 in 1910 to 94 by 1920 and 267 by 1930. The super-rich have avoided the income tax ever since, leaving it to be paid instead by the middle and lower classes.
The 17 Amendment was declared ratified on April 8, 1913 but it was never actually ratified. Many believe that the 17th Amendment is a good thing because it gave more of a voice to the people but that simply is not the case.
The 17th Amendment was critical in order to remove the right of the States of the Union to equal representation in the U.S. Senate. Henceforth, those seats were up for the highest bidder.
James Madison wrote in The Federalist Papers #45:
"The Senate will be elected absolutely and exclusively by the State legislatures."
John Jay, co-author of The Federal Papers is quoted:
"Jay then informed Governor Clinton that, unlike the Senate, where the two-thirds rule was in force for treaties and impeachment, the lower house had nothing to do with treaties; it represented the people whereas the Senate represented the states--for the Federalists always a significant distinction."
The framers of the Constitution wisely understood the absolute necessity of ensuring we the people would have the right to vote for our representative in Congress, and at the same time because they all jealously guarded freedom and liberty, the States must also have equal representation. We the people would have the ability to remove via the ballot box, miscreants and scoundrels, while the State legislatures could recall their U.S. Senators who acted against the best interests of their State. The Senate was supposed to be a sort of checks and balances, but that noble concept disappeared when U.S. Senators were then voted into office by special interests and mobs demanding more and more from the people's treasury. The absolute right of the States to equal representation was wiped out when the 17th Amendment was declared ratified on April 8, 1913.
Our corrupt judicial system at the federal level is part of the problem. Federal judges, including U.S. Supreme Court Justices, are beholden to the U.S. Senators who vote to confirm them. Critical duties of the U.S. Senate, besides confirming federal judges: confirming cabinet heads and ratifying trade agreements. Both areas that can and have had a negative impact on the States of the Union over the decades.
Just look at the destruction of jobs in the States because of "agreements" like NAFTA and treaties like CAFTA and GATT/WTO. Millions of jobs shipped overseas, to Mexico and South America while Americans stand in unemployment lines. Look at the destruction to our industrial and manufacturing sectors. Nearly wiped out along with millions of jobs because of NAFTA and GATT/WTO. The harm to our nation from our illegal participation as a member of the communist UN and the treaties coming out of that rancid operation. That is why the States were to have equal representation in Congress; to check a president on treaties.
In the official publication called 'Constitution Jefferson's Manual and Rules of the House of Representatives of the United States Congress, Eighty-Seventh Congress, Thomas Jefferson, said in part:
"Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year One thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article; and that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate."
Many States were out of session during the time of the ratification process. Since several States were out of session at the time of the vote, they had been deprived of equal Suffrage in the U.S. Senate because they did not participate in the ratification of this amendment.
It is absolutely wrong to correct a legal fiction using a method which would give legitimacy to that fiction.